Autonomy in Language Teaching and Learning Process

Dilek ÇAKICI
945 754

Öz


The concept of learner autonomy in the field of foreign language learning was clearly articulated in the 1979 report prepared by Holec for the Council of Europe. The learner autonomy aims at providing language learners with the ability to take on more responsibility for their own learning. In addition, students may make decisions by themselves about what and how they should learn. On the other hand, traditionalists assert that providing autonomy to learners will cause teachers to lose their control over the class. In this review, the concept of learner autonomy in language learning has been explained from different aspects. Afterwards, the necessary clues regarding how to support the development of learner autonomy in language learning process are given and the characteristics of autonomous learners are presented. In addition, the ways recommended to promote the learner autonomy are discussed and the roles of both teachers and learners in developing of autonomy are mentioned.


Anahtar kelimeler


Language learning; Language teaching; Learner autonomy

Tam metin:

PDF (English)


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17679/iuefd.16168538

Referanslar


Benson, P. and Voller, P. (1997). Autonomy and independence in language learning. New York: Longman.

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. London: Longman.

Candy, P. C. (1991). Self-direction for lifelong learning. California: Jossey-Bass.

Chan, V. (2001). Readiness for learner autonomy: What do our learners tell us? Teaching in Higher Education, 6(4). 505-519.

Clark, A. (1997). Being there. Putting brain, body, and world together again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Pres.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Readiness for autonomy: Investigating learner beliefs. System, 23(2), 195-206.

Dam, L. (1995). Learner autonomy: From theory to classroom practice. Dublin: Authentik.

Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Pienum.

Dickinson, L. (1993). Talking shop: aspects of autonomous learning: An interview with Leslie Dickinson. ELT Journal, 47(4), 330-336.

Dişlen, G. (2011). Fostering autonomy in language learning. D. Gardner (Eds.), Exploration of how students perceive autonomous learning in an EFL context. pp.126-136). Zirve University: Gaziantep.

Fener, A. B. and Newby, D. (2000). Approaches to materials design in European textbooks: Implementing principles of authenticity, learner autonomy, cultural awareness. European Centre for Modern Languages of the Council of Europe Publishing.

Finch, A. E. (2000). A formative evaluation of a task-based EFL program for Korean university students. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Manchester University, Manchester, UK.

Freeman, D. and Anderson, M. (2011). Teaching and principles in language teaching. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Göksu, A. and Genç, B. (2011). Fostering autonomy in language learning. In D. Gardner (Eds.), The contribution of the European language portfolio to autonomy in reading skills. (pp. 99-106). Zirve University: Gaziantep.

Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Oxford University Press.

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy in foreign language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Johnson, D. W. (1991). Human relations and your career (3rd.ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lee, I. (1998). Supporting greater autonomy in language learning. ELT Journal, 52(4), 3-10.

Little, D. (1991). Learner autonomy: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin: Authentik.

Little, D. (2000). Why focus on learning rather than teaching? In D. Little, L. Dam, and J. Timmer (Eds.), Focus on Learning Rather than Teaching: Why and how? Papers from the International association of teachers of English as a foreign language 48 (IATEFL) Conference (Krakow, Poland, May 14-16, 1998). (pp. 3-17). Dublin Ireland: Centre for Language and Communication Studies. Trinity College.

Little, D. (2005). The Common European Framework and the European Language Portfolio: involving learners and their judgements in the assessment process. Sage journals online, 2-17.

Littlewood, W. (1997). Self-access work and curriculum ideologies. In P. Benson and P. Voller (Eds.), Autonomy and independence in language learning. (pp. 181-191). London: Longman.

Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Massachusetts: Heinle&Heinle.

O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Russo, P., and Küpper, L. (1985). Learning Strategy applications with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 19(3), 557-584.

O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. V. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. London: Macmillan.

Oxford, R. (1989). The use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. System, 12(2), 235-247.

Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Oxford, R. (1993). Research on second language strategies. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 175- 187.

Rubin, J. and Wenden, A. (1987). Learner strategies in language learning. Englewoods Hill, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Salmon, P. (1995). Psychology in the classroom. Reconstructing teachers and learners. London and New York: Cassell.

Shimo, E. (2003). Learners’ perceptions of portfolio assessment and autonomous learning. In A. Barfield and M. Nix (Eds.), Teacher and learner autonomy in Japan, Autonomy you ask (pp. 175-186). Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching Learner Development Special Interest Group.

Thomsen, H. (2010). Writing and talking to learn - a portfolio study. In teaching English at lower secondary level and EFL learning and second language acquisition: Reading handouts (pp. 191-202). Reykjavík: University of Iceland.

Tok, H. (2011). Fostering autonomy in language learning. In D. Gardner (Eds.), Autonomous language learning: Turkish tertiary students’ behaviours. (pp.126-136). Zirve University: Gaziantep.

Turloiu, A. and Stefansdottir, I. S. (2011). Learner autonomy: Theoretical and practical information for language teachers. Reykjavik: University of Iceland.

Voller, P. 1997. Does the teacher have a role in autonomous learning? In P. Benson and P. Voller Autonomy and independence in language learning. (pp. 98-113). London: Longman. (Eds.),

Wenden, A. (1998). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. Great Britain: Prentice Hall.

Weinstein, C.E. and Mayer, R.E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. Wittrock (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 3 15-327). New York, NY: Macmillan, Correspondence




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.