A Case Study of Instructional Leadership in Malawian Secondary Schools

Erdal TOPRAKÇI, Osman Ferda BEYTEKİN, Hussein Collins CHIPALA
1.243 238


Currently, there is a huge demand for secondary school education worldwide especially in the developing countries such as Malawi. In order to meet this for the secondary school education, the Malawian government tries to develop effective school leadership in its education policy agenda. We conducted a qualitative study involving two religious-run secondary schools that have been achieving excellent results in order to examine the instructional leadership roles of the principals.. The study consist two principals, ten students, six parents and fourteen teachers. The study revealed that the principals established the positive partnership with the parents, students as well as the teachers. It is also discovered that the principals’ responsibilities in both schools were often distributed to the teachers as well as their students. Furthermore, we also discovered that the principals in those schools played much emphasis on the academic results by prioritizing the allocation of enough resources in the teaching and learning as well as the effective use of time and other resources. Therefore, the Malawian government should make sure to have many principals that may have effective instructional leadership capacity in order to improve the culture of teaching and learning in Malawian secondary schools.

Anahtar kelimeler

Instructional leadership, secondary school, roles of principals, Malawi

Tam metin:

PDF (English)


Akinyi, O.D. &Onyango, Y. (2014). Role of Principals‟ Instructional Leadership Style In Facilitating Learning Materials and Co-Ordination of Personnel on Students‟ Performance: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 3 (3), 51-55.

American Association of School Administrators (AASA), (1992). An effective schools primer. Arlington: AASA publications.

Barber, M., Whelan, F. & Clark, M. (2010), Capturing the Leadership Premium, McKinsey & Company, http://mckinseyonsociety.com/capturing-the-leadership-premium/

Blase, J. and Blase Jo. (2000). Effective instructional leadership: Teachers‟ perspectives on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Educational Administration 38(2). 130-41.

Boscardin, C.K., Aguirre-Munoz, Stoker, Kim, J., Kim, M., & Lee, J. (2005). Relationship between opportunity to learn and student performance, Educational Assessment, 10(4), 307-332.

Bossert, S.T., Dwyer, D.C., Rowan, B. & Lee, G.V. (1982). The instructional management role of the principal. Educational Administration Quarterly, 18:34-64.

Botha, R.J. (2004). Excellence in leadership: Demands on the professional school

principal.South African Journal of Education, 24(3): 239-243.

Brookover, W. B., & Lezotte, L. (1982). Creating effective schools. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publication.

Chimombo J. (2013) Transition from Primary to Secondary Education: A Paradox for Malawi? Paper under review in Malawi journal of Education and Development, Chancellor College, Zomba, Malawi.

Chimombo, J., Chibwana, M., Dzimadzi, C., Kadzamira, E., Kunkwenzu, E., Kunje, D., & Namphota, D. (2000). In Centre for Educational Research and Training (CERT) (Ed.). Zomba, Malawi: CERT.

Chisholm, L. & Vally, S. (1996). The culture of learning and teaching in Gauteng schools: Report of the Committee on the Culture of Learning and Teaching. Johannesburg, Education Policy Unit, University of the Witwatersrand.

Christie, P. (1998). Schools as (dis)organisations: the “breakdown of the culture of learning and teaching” in South African schools. Cambridge Journal of Education, 28:283-300.

Day, C., Sammons, P., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Gu, Q., Brown, E., Ahtaridou, E. & Kington, A. (2009), The Impact of School Leadership on Pupil Outcomes:

Final Report, UK Department for Children, Schools and Families Research.

Day, C., Sammons, P., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Gu, Q. & Brown, E.

(2010),10 Strong Claims about Successful School Leadership, College for Leadership of Schools and Children's Services.

De Vos, A.S., Strydom, H., Fouché, C.B. , Delport, C.S.L. (2011). Research at

Grassroots: For the Social Sciences and Human Service Professions. 4th Edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

Dimmock, C. & Wildy, H. (1995). Conceptualizing curriculum management in an effective secondary school: a Western Australian case study. The Curriculum Journal, 6:297-323.

DuFour, R. (2002). The learning-cantered principal. Educational Leadership 59, 8 : 12-15.

Fidler, B. (1997). School leadership: some key ideas. School Leadership &Management, 17:23-37.

Flath, B. (1989). The principal as instructional leader. ATA Magazines, 69(3), 19-22, 47-49.

Hakim, C. (2000). Research Design: Successful Designs for Social and Economic

Research.London: Routledge.

Harrison, K. (2013). Why Employee Recognition is so Important. Retrieved from the web on 02/05/15 from http://www.cuttingedgepr.com/articles/emprecog_so_important.asp

Hattie, J. (2003), Teachers Make a Difference, What is the Research Evidence? Australian Council for Educational Research.

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2005). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice (7th ed).New York: McGraw-Hill.

Jacobs, M., Vakalisa, N.C.G. & Gawe, N. ( 2011). Teaching-learning Dynamics. South Africa: Pearson Education.

Karpicke, H. & Murphy, M.E. (1996). Productive school culture: Principals working from the inside. NASSP Bulletin, 26-34.

Kelley, C. (1999). The Motivational Impact of School-Based Performance Awards‟, Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 12 (4), pp 309-26.

Kondwani, M.F. (2012) School leaders as core actors in educational improvement: exploring headteachers' experiences and perceptions of school leadership in Malawi. Retrieved from the web on 26 th April, 2015 from http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.619162

Krug, S.E. (1992). Instructional leadership: A constructivist perspective. Educational Administration Quarterly, 28:430-443.

Kruger, A.G. (2003). Instructional leadership: the impact on the culture of teaching and learning in two effective secondary schools: South African Journal of Education, Vol 23(3), 206 – 211.

Kurian, V.J. (2008). Management Strategies to Improve the Academic Performance of Previously Disadvantaged Secondary Schools in the Grade 12 Examination. From

Leithwood, K., Day, C., Sammons, P., Harris, A. & Hopkins, D. (2006), Successful School Leadership: What it is and How it Influences Pupil Learning, Nottingham, UK: National College for School Leadership and Department for Education and Skills.

Licata, J.W. & Harper, G.W. (1999). Healthy schools, robust schools and academic emphasis as an organizational theme. Journal of Educational Administration, 37:463-475.

Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). The principal as instructional leader. National Forum of Educational and Supervision Journal, 27(4): 1-5.

Luqman, R.A., Farhan, H.M., Shahzad, F. & Shaheen, S. (2012). Twenty-first century challenges of educational leaders, way out and need of reflective practice. International Journal of Learning and Development, 2(1): 195- 208.

Machoya, S., Mugwe, M. & Musau, N. (2014). An investigation into the relationship between instructional leadership and students‟ learning outcomes in secondary schools of Murang‟a County – Kenya: International Journal of Education and Research. 2 (9) 375.

McMillan, J.H. & Schumacher, S. (1997). Research in Education: A conceptual

introduction. New York: Longman.

Mestry, R., Moloi, K.C. & Mahomed, A.N. (2007). Perspective on zero tolerance to discipline: Towards maintaining a nurturing and secure school environment. African Review, 4(2):97-97.

Mwangi, M. (2009). The Role of School Leadership in Student Achievement in Kenya.Thesis: Weatherhead School of Management.

National Association of Elementary School Principals. (2001). leading

learning communities: Standards for what principals should know and be able to do. Alexandria, Virginia.

Odden, A. and Kelley, C. (2002). Paying Teachers For What They Know And Do: New And Smarter Compensation Strategies To Improve Schools, 2nd Edition, Corwin Press, California.

Olson, L. (2000). New thinking on what makes a leader. Education Week on the Web. Retrieved from 18 April www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug-19lead.h1.

Porter, A. C. (2002). Measuring the content of instruction: Uses in research and

practice,Educational Researcher, 31(7), 3-14.

Reitzug, U.C. (1997). Images of principal instructional leadership: From supervision to collaborative inquiry. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 12, 324-343.

Smit, B. (2001). How primary teachers experience education policy change in South

Africa.Perspective in Education, 19(3): 67-83.

Squelch, J. (2000). Governance of education. In: Lemmer EM (ed.).Contemporary education: Global issues and trends. Sandton: Heinemann.

Squires, D.A. (2008). Curriculum alignment: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

World Bank, (2005). Expanding Opportunities and Building Competencies for Young

People:A New Agenda for Secondary Education. The World Bank, Washington, DC.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.